HSM stands for hardware security module. HSMs are cryptographic devices that serve as physically secure processing environments. Within these physically secure environments, you are able to perform cryptographic operations with the lowest risk possible for cyberattacks or data breaches. The types of cryptographic operations an HSM can perform are generally determined by the manufacturer. Operations can range from encrypting data to managing the overall health of your cryptographic infrastructure. If there are any cryptographic operations you need to perform, an HSM is the most secure way to do it.